Python SDK Overview#

The Ray Jobs Python SDK is the recommended way to submit jobs programmatically. Jump to the API Reference, or continue reading for a quick overview.

Setup#

Ray Jobs is available in versions 1.9+ and requires a full installation of Ray. You can do this by running:

pip install "ray[default]"

See the installation guide for more details on installing Ray.

To run a Ray Job, we also need to be able to send HTTP requests to a Ray Cluster. For convenience, this guide will assume that you are using a local Ray Cluster, which we can start by running:

ray start --head
# ...
# 2022-08-10 09:54:57,664   INFO services.py:1476 -- View the Ray dashboard at http://127.0.0.1:8265
# ...

This will create a Ray head node on our local machine that we can use for development purposes. Note the Ray Dashboard URL that is printed when starting or connecting to a Ray Cluster; we will use this URL later to submit a Ray Job. See Using a Remote Cluster for tips on port-forwarding if using a remote cluster. For more details on production deployment scenarios, check out the guides for deploying Ray on VMs and Kubernetes.

Submitting a Ray Job#

Let’s start with a sample script that can be run locally. The following script uses Ray APIs to submit a task and print its return value:

# script.py
import ray

@ray.remote
def hello_world():
    return "hello world"

ray.init()
print(ray.get(hello_world.remote()))

SDK calls are made via a JobSubmissionClient object. To initialize the client, provide the Ray cluster head node address and the port used by the Ray Dashboard (8265 by default). For this example, we’ll use a local Ray cluster, but the same example will work for remote Ray cluster addresses.

from ray.job_submission import JobSubmissionClient

# If using a remote cluster, replace 127.0.0.1 with the head node's IP address.
client = JobSubmissionClient("http://127.0.0.1:8265")
job_id = client.submit_job(
    # Entrypoint shell command to execute
    entrypoint="python script.py",
    # Path to the local directory that contains the script.py file
    runtime_env={"working_dir": "./"}
)
print(job_id)

Tip

By default, the Ray job server will generate a new job_id and return it, but you can alternatively choose a unique job_id string first and pass it into submit_job. In this case, the Job will be executed with your given id, and will throw an error if the same job_id is submitted more than once for the same Ray cluster.

Because job submission is asynchronous, the above call will return immediately with output like the following:

raysubmit_g8tDzJ6GqrCy7pd6

Now we can write a simple polling loop that checks the job status until it reaches a terminal state (namely, JobStatus.SUCCEEDED, JobStatus.STOPPED, or JobStatus.FAILED). We can also get the output of the job by calling client.get_job_logs.

from ray.job_submission import JobSubmissionClient, JobStatus
import time

# If using a remote cluster, replace 127.0.0.1 with the head node's IP address.
client = JobSubmissionClient("http://127.0.0.1:8265")
job_id = client.submit_job(
    # Entrypoint shell command to execute
    entrypoint="python script.py",
    # Path to the local directory that contains the script.py file
    runtime_env={"working_dir": "./"}
)
print(job_id)

def wait_until_status(job_id, status_to_wait_for, timeout_seconds=5):
    start = time.time()
    while time.time() - start <= timeout_seconds:
        status = client.get_job_status(job_id)
        print(f"status: {status}")
        if status in status_to_wait_for:
            break
        time.sleep(1)


wait_until_status(job_id, {JobStatus.SUCCEEDED, JobStatus.STOPPED, JobStatus.FAILED})
logs = client.get_job_logs(job_id)
print(logs)

The output should look something like this:

raysubmit_pBwfn5jqRE1E7Wmc
status: PENDING
status: PENDING
status: RUNNING
status: RUNNING
status: RUNNING
2022-08-22 15:05:55,652 INFO worker.py:1203 -- Using address 127.0.0.1:6379 set in the environment variable RAY_ADDRESS
2022-08-22 15:05:55,652 INFO worker.py:1312 -- Connecting to existing Ray cluster at address: 127.0.0.1:6379...
2022-08-22 15:05:55,660 INFO worker.py:1487 -- Connected to Ray cluster. View the dashboard at http://127.0.0.1:8265.
hello world

Interacting with Long-running Jobs#

In addition to getting the current status and output of a job, a submitted job can also be stopped by the user before it finishes executing.

job_id = client.submit_job(
    # Entrypoint shell command to execute
    entrypoint="python -c 'import time; print(\"Sleeping...\"); time.sleep(60)'"
)
wait_until_status(job_id, {JobStatus.RUNNING})
print(f'Stopping job {job_id}')
client.stop_job(job_id)
wait_until_status(job_id, {JobStatus.SUCCEEDED, JobStatus.STOPPED, JobStatus.FAILED})
logs = client.get_job_logs(job_id)
print(logs)

The output should look something like the following:

status: PENDING
status: PENDING
status: RUNNING
Stopping job raysubmit_VYCZZ2BQb4tfeCjq
status: STOPPED
Sleeping...

To get information about all jobs, call client.list_jobs(). This returns a Dict[str, JobInfo] object mapping Job IDs to their information.

Job information (status and associated metadata) is stored on the cluster indefinitely. To delete this information, you may call client.delete_job(job_id) for any job that is already in a terminal state. See the SDK API Reference for more details.

Dependency Management#

Similar to the Jobs CLI, we can also package our application’s dependencies by using a Ray runtime environment. Using the Python SDK, the syntax looks something like this:

job_id = client.submit_job(
    # Entrypoint shell command to execute
    entrypoint="python script.py",
    # Runtime environment for the job, specifying a working directory and pip package
    runtime_env={
        "working_dir": "./",
        "pip": ["requests==2.26.0"]
    }
)

Tip

Instead of a local directory ("./" in this example), you can also specify remote URIs for your job’s working directory, such as S3 buckets or Git repositories. See Remote URIs for details.

For full details, see the API Reference.

Specifying CPU and GPU resources#

We recommend doing heavy computation within Ray tasks, actors, or Ray libraries, not directly in the top level of your entrypoint script. No extra configuration is needed to do this.

However, if you need to do computation directly in the entrypoint script and would like to reserve CPU and GPU resources for the entrypoint script, you may specify the entrypoint_num_cpus, entrypoint_num_gpus and entrypoint_resources arguments to submit_job. These arguments function identically to the num_cpus, num_gpus, and resources arguments to @ray.remote() decorator for tasks and actors as described in Specifying Task or Actor Resource Requirements.

job_id = client.submit_job(
    entrypoint="python script.py",
    runtime_env={
        "working_dir": "./",
    }
    # Reserve 1 GPU for the entrypoint script
    entrypoint_num_gpus=1
)

The same arguments are also available as options --entrypoint-num-cpus, --entrypoint-num-gpus, and --entrypoint-resources to ray job submit in the Jobs CLI; see Ray Job Submission CLI Reference.

If num_gpus is not specified, GPUs will still be available to the entrypoint script, but Ray will not provide isolation in terms of visible devices. To be precise, the environment variable CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES will not be set in the entrypoint script; it will only be set inside tasks and actors that have num_gpus specified in their @ray.remote() decorator.

Note

Resources specified by entrypoint_num_cpus, entrypoint_num_gpus, and entrypoint_resources are separate from any resources specified for tasks and actors within the job.

For example, if you specify entrypoint_num_gpus=1, then the entrypoint script will be scheduled on a node with at least 1 GPU, but if your script also contains a Ray task defined with @ray.remote(num_gpus=1), then the task will be scheduled to use a different GPU (on the same node if the node has at least 2 GPUs, or on a different node otherwise).

Note

As with the num_cpus, num_gpus, and resources arguments to @ray.remote() described in Specifying Task or Actor Resource Requirements, these arguments only refer to logical resources used for scheduling purposes. The actual CPU and GPU utilization is not controlled or limited by Ray.

Note

By default, 0 CPUs and 0 GPUs are reserved for the entrypoint script.

Client Configuration#

Additional client connection options, such as custom HTTP headers and cookies, can be passed to the JobSubmissionClient class. A full list of options can be found in the API Reference.

TLS Verification#

By default, any HTTPS client connections will be verified using system certificates found by the underlying requests and aiohttp libraries. The verify parameter can be set to override this behavior. For example:

client = JobSubmissionClient("https://<job-server-url>", verify="/path/to/cert.pem")

will use the certificate found at /path/to/cert.pem to verify the job server’s certificate. Certificate verification can be disabled by setting the verify parameter to False.