Configuring Scale and GPUs#

Increasing the scale of a Ray Train training run is simple and can be done in a few lines of code. The main interface for this is the ScalingConfig, which configures the number of workers and the resources they should use.

In this guide, a worker refers to a Ray Train distributed training worker, which is a Ray Actor that runs your training function.

Increasing the number of workers#

The main interface to control parallelism in your training code is to set the number of workers. This can be done by passing the num_workers attribute to the ScalingConfig:

from ray.train import ScalingConfig

scaling_config = ScalingConfig(
    num_workers=8
)

Using GPUs#

To use GPUs, pass use_gpu=True to the ScalingConfig. This will request one GPU per training worker. In the example below, training will run on 8 GPUs (8 workers, each using one GPU).

from ray.train import ScalingConfig

scaling_config = ScalingConfig(
    num_workers=8,
    use_gpu=True
)

Using GPUs in the training function#

When use_gpu=True is set, Ray Train will automatically set up environment variables in your training function so that the GPUs can be detected and used (e.g. CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES).

You can get the associated devices with ray.train.torch.get_device().

import torch
from ray.train import ScalingConfig
from ray.train.torch import TorchTrainer, get_device


def train_func(config):
    assert torch.cuda.is_available()

    device = get_device()
    assert device == torch.device("cuda:0")

trainer = TorchTrainer(
    train_func,
    scaling_config=ScalingConfig(
        num_workers=1,
        use_gpu=True
    )
)
trainer.fit()

Assigning multiple GPUs to a worker#

Sometimes you might want to allocate multiple GPUs for a worker. For example, you can specify resources_per_worker={"GPU": 2} in the ScalingConfig if you want to assign 2 GPUs for each worker.

You can get a list of associated devices with ray.train.torch.get_devices().

import torch
from ray.train import ScalingConfig
from ray.train.torch import TorchTrainer, get_device, get_devices


def train_func(config):
    assert torch.cuda.is_available()

    device = get_device()
    devices = get_devices()
    assert device == torch.device("cuda:0")
    assert devices == [torch.device("cuda:0"), torch.device("cuda:1")]

trainer = TorchTrainer(
    train_func,
    scaling_config=ScalingConfig(
        num_workers=1,
        use_gpu=True,
        resources_per_worker={"GPU": 2}
    )
)
trainer.fit()

(PyTorch) Setting the communication backend#

PyTorch Distributed supports multiple backends for communicating tensors across workers. By default Ray Train will use NCCL when use_gpu=True and Gloo otherwise.

If you explictly want to override this setting, you can configure a TorchConfig and pass it into the TorchTrainer.

from ray.train.torch import TorchConfig, TorchTrainer

trainer = TorchTrainer(
    train_func,
    scaling_config=ScalingConfig(
        num_workers=num_training_workers,
        use_gpu=True, # Defaults to NCCL
    ),
    torch_config=TorchConfig(backend="gloo"),
)

(NCCL) Setting the communication network interface#

When using NCCL for distributed training, you can configure the network interface cards that are used for communicating between GPUs by setting the NCCL_SOCKET_IFNAME environment variable.

To ensure that the environment variable is set for all training workers, you can pass it in a Ray runtime environment:

import ray

runtime_env = {"env_vars": {"NCCL_SOCKET_IFNAME": "ens5"}}
ray.init(runtime_env=runtime_env)

trainer = TorchTrainer(...)

Setting the resources per worker#

If you want to allocate more than one CPU or GPU per training worker, or if you defined custom cluster resources, set the resources_per_worker attribute:

from ray.train import ScalingConfig

scaling_config = ScalingConfig(
    num_workers=8,
    resources_per_worker={
        "CPU": 4,
        "GPU": 2,
    },
    use_gpu=True,
)

Note

If you specify GPUs in resources_per_worker, you also need to set use_gpu=True.

You can also instruct Ray Train to use fractional GPUs. In that case, multiple workers will be assigned the same CUDA device.

from ray.train import ScalingConfig

scaling_config = ScalingConfig(
    num_workers=8,
    resources_per_worker={
        "CPU": 4,
        "GPU": 0.5,
    },
    use_gpu=True,
)

Trainer resources#

So far we’ve configured resources for each training worker. Technically, each training worker is a Ray Actor. Ray Train also schedules an actor for the Trainer object when you call Trainer.fit().

This object often only manages lightweight communication between the training workers. You can still specify its resources, which can be useful if you implemented your own Trainer that does heavier processing.

from ray.train import ScalingConfig

scaling_config = ScalingConfig(
    num_workers=8,
    trainer_resources={
        "CPU": 4,
        "GPU": 1,
    }
)

Per default, a trainer uses 1 CPU. If you have a cluster with 8 CPUs and want to start 4 training workers a 2 CPUs, this will not work, as the total number of required CPUs will be 9 (4 * 2 + 1). In that case, you can specify the trainer resources to use 0 CPUs:

from ray.train import ScalingConfig

scaling_config = ScalingConfig(
    num_workers=4,
    resources_per_worker={
        "CPU": 2,
    },
    trainer_resources={
        "CPU": 0,
    }
)