Production Guide#

The recommended way to run Ray Serve in production is on Kubernetes using the KubeRay RayService custom resource. The RayService custom resource automatically handles important production requirements such as health checking, status reporting, failure recovery, and upgrades. If you’re not running on Kubernetes, you can also run Ray Serve on a Ray cluster directly using the Serve CLI.

This section will walk you through a quickstart of how to generate a Serve config file and deploy it using the Serve CLI. For more details, you can check out the other pages in the production guide:

For deploying on VMs instead of Kubernetes, see Deploy on VM.

Working example: Text summarization and translation application#

Throughout the production guide, we will use the following Serve application as a working example. The application takes in a string of text in English, then summarizes and translates it into French (default), German, or Romanian.

from starlette.requests import Request
from typing import Dict

import ray
from ray import serve
from ray.serve.handle import DeploymentHandle

from transformers import pipeline

class Translator:
    def __init__(self):
        self.language = "french"
        self.model = pipeline("translation_en_to_fr", model="t5-small")

    def translate(self, text: str) -> str:
        model_output = self.model(text)

        translation = model_output[0]["translation_text"]

        return translation

    def reconfigure(self, config: Dict):
        self.language = config.get("language", "french")

        if self.language.lower() == "french":
            self.model = pipeline("translation_en_to_fr", model="t5-small")
        elif self.language.lower() == "german":
            self.model = pipeline("translation_en_to_de", model="t5-small")
        elif self.language.lower() == "romanian":
            self.model = pipeline("translation_en_to_ro", model="t5-small")

class Summarizer:
    def __init__(self, translator: DeploymentHandle):
        # Load model
        self.model = pipeline("summarization", model="t5-small")
        self.translator = translator
        self.min_length = 5
        self.max_length = 15

    def summarize(self, text: str) -> str:
        # Run inference
        model_output = self.model(
            text, min_length=self.min_length, max_length=self.max_length

        # Post-process output to return only the summary text
        summary = model_output[0]["summary_text"]

        return summary

    async def __call__(self, http_request: Request) -> str:
        english_text: str = await http_request.json()
        summary = self.summarize(english_text)

        return await self.translator.translate.remote(summary)

    def reconfigure(self, config: Dict):
        self.min_length = config.get("min_length", 5)
        self.max_length = config.get("max_length", 15)

app = Summarizer.bind(Translator.bind())

Save this code locally in In development, we would likely use the serve run command to iteratively run, develop, and repeat (see the Development Workflow for more information). When we’re ready to go to production, we will generate a structured config file that acts as the single source of truth for the application.

This config file can be generated using serve build:

$ serve build text_ml:app -o serve_config.yaml

The generated version of this file contains an import_path, runtime_env, and configuration options for each deployment in the application. The application needs the torch and transformers packages, so modify the runtime_env field of the generated config to include these two pip packages. Save this config locally in serve_config.yaml.

proxy_location: EveryNode

  port: 8000

- name: default
  route_prefix: /
  import_path: text_ml:app
      - torch
      - transformers
  - name: Translator
    num_replicas: 1
      language: french
  - name: Summarizer
    num_replicas: 1

You can use serve deploy to deploy the application to a local Ray cluster and serve status to get the status at runtime:

# Start a local Ray cluster.
ray start --head

# Deploy the Text ML application to the local Ray cluster.
serve deploy serve_config.yaml
2022-08-16 12:51:22,043 SUCC --
Sent deploy request successfully!
 * Use `serve status` to check deployments' statuses.
 * Use `serve config` to see the running app's config.

$ serve status
  cef533a072b0f03bf92a6b98cb4eb9153b7b7c7b7f15954feb2f38ec: HEALTHY
    status: RUNNING
    message: ''
    last_deployed_time_s: 1694041157.2211847
        status: HEALTHY
          RUNNING: 1
        message: ''
        status: HEALTHY
          RUNNING: 1
        message: ''

Test the application using Python requests:

import requests

english_text = (
    "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age "
    "of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief"
response ="", json=english_text)
french_text = response.text

# 'c'était le meilleur des temps, c'était le pire des temps .'

To update the application, modify the config file and use serve deploy again.

Next Steps#

For a deeper dive into how to deploy, update, and monitor Serve applications, see the following pages: