Source code for ray.tune.utils.util

import copy
import logging
import threading
import time
from collections import defaultdict, deque, Mapping, Sequence
from threading import Thread

import numpy as np
import ray
import psutil

logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)

    import GPUtil
except ImportError:
    GPUtil = None

_pinned_objects = []
PINNED_OBJECT_PREFIX = "ray.tune.PinnedObject:"
START_OF_TIME = time.time()

class UtilMonitor(Thread):
    """Class for system usage utilization monitoring.

    It keeps track of CPU, RAM, GPU, VRAM usage (each gpu separately) by
    pinging for information every x seconds in a separate thread.

    Requires psutil and GPUtil to be installed. Can be enabled with{"log_sys_usage": True}).

    def __init__(self, start=True, delay=0.7):
        self.stopped = True
        if GPUtil is None and start:
            logger.warning("Install gputil for GPU system monitoring.")

        if psutil is None and start:
            logger.warning("Install psutil to monitor system performance.")

        if GPUtil is None and psutil is None:

        super(UtilMonitor, self).__init__()
        self.delay = delay  # Time between calls to GPUtil
        self.values = defaultdict(list)
        self.lock = threading.Lock()
        self.daemon = True
        if start:

    def _read_utilization(self):
        with self.lock:
            if psutil is not None:
                    float(getattr(psutil.virtual_memory(), "percent")))
            if GPUtil is not None:
                gpu_list = []
                    gpu_list = GPUtil.getGPUs()
                except Exception:
                    logger.debug("GPUtil failed to retrieve GPUs.")
                for gpu in gpu_list:
                    self.values["gpu_util_percent" + str(].append(
                    self.values["vram_util_percent" + str(].append(

    def get_data(self):
        if self.stopped:
            return {}

        with self.lock:
            ret_values = copy.deepcopy(self.values)
            for key, val in self.values.items():
                del val[:]
        return {
            "perf": {
                k: np.mean(v)
                for k, v in ret_values.items() if len(v) > 0

    def run(self):
        self.stopped = False
        while not self.stopped:

    def stop(self):
        self.stopped = True

def pin_in_object_store(obj):
    """Deprecated, use ray.put(value, weakref=False) instead."""

    obj_ref = ray.put(obj, weakref=False)
    return obj_ref

def get_pinned_object(pinned_id):

    return ray.get(pinned_id)

class warn_if_slow:
    """Prints a warning if a given operation is slower than 100ms.

        >>> with warn_if_slow("some_operation"):
        ...    ray.get(something)


    def __init__(self, name, threshold=None): = name
        self.threshold = threshold or self.DEFAULT_THRESHOLD
        self.too_slow = False

    def __enter__(self):
        self.start = time.time()
        return self

    def __exit__(self, type, value, traceback):
        now = time.time()
        if now - self.start > self.threshold and now - START_OF_TIME > 60.0:
            self.too_slow = True
                "The `%s` operation took %s seconds to complete, "
                "which may be a performance bottleneck.",,
                now - self.start)

class Tee(object):
    def __init__(self, stream1, stream2):
        self.stream1 = stream1
        self.stream2 = stream2

    def write(self, *args, **kwargs):
        self.stream1.write(*args, **kwargs)
        self.stream2.write(*args, **kwargs)

    def flush(self, *args, **kwargs):
        self.stream1.flush(*args, **kwargs)
        self.stream2.flush(*args, **kwargs)

[docs]def merge_dicts(d1, d2): """ Args: d1 (dict): Dict 1. d2 (dict): Dict 2. Returns: dict: A new dict that is d1 and d2 deep merged. """ merged = copy.deepcopy(d1) deep_update(merged, d2, True, []) return merged
[docs]def deep_update(original, new_dict, new_keys_allowed=False, allow_new_subkey_list=None, override_all_if_type_changes=None): """Updates original dict with values from new_dict recursively. If new key is introduced in new_dict, then if new_keys_allowed is not True, an error will be thrown. Further, for sub-dicts, if the key is in the allow_new_subkey_list, then new subkeys can be introduced. Args: original (dict): Dictionary with default values. new_dict (dict): Dictionary with values to be updated new_keys_allowed (bool): Whether new keys are allowed. allow_new_subkey_list (Optional[List[str]]): List of keys that correspond to dict values where new subkeys can be introduced. This is only at the top level. override_all_if_type_changes(Optional[List[str]]): List of top level keys with value=dict, for which we always simply override the entire value (dict), iff the "type" key in that value dict changes. """ allow_new_subkey_list = allow_new_subkey_list or [] override_all_if_type_changes = override_all_if_type_changes or [] for k, value in new_dict.items(): if k not in original and not new_keys_allowed: raise Exception("Unknown config parameter `{}` ".format(k)) # Both orginal value and new one are dicts. if isinstance(original.get(k), dict) and isinstance(value, dict): # Check old type vs old one. If different, override entire value. if k in override_all_if_type_changes and \ "type" in value and "type" in original[k] and \ value["type"] != original[k]["type"]: original[k] = value # Allowed key -> ok to add new subkeys. elif k in allow_new_subkey_list: deep_update(original[k], value, True) # Non-allowed key. else: deep_update(original[k], value, new_keys_allowed) # Original value not a dict OR new value not a dict: # Override entire value. else: original[k] = value return original
def flatten_dict(dt, delimiter="/"): dt = copy.deepcopy(dt) while any(isinstance(v, dict) for v in dt.values()): remove = [] add = {} for key, value in dt.items(): if isinstance(value, dict): for subkey, v in value.items(): add[delimiter.join([key, subkey])] = v remove.append(key) dt.update(add) for k in remove: del dt[k] return dt def unflattened_lookup(flat_key, lookup, delimiter="/", **kwargs): """ Unflatten `flat_key` and iteratively look up in `lookup`. E.g. `flat_key="a/0/b"` will try to return `lookup["a"][0]["b"]`. """ keys = deque(flat_key.split(delimiter)) base = lookup while keys: key = keys.popleft() try: if isinstance(base, Mapping): base = base[key] elif isinstance(base, Sequence): base = base[int(key)] else: raise KeyError() except KeyError as e: if "default" in kwargs: return kwargs["default"] raise e return base def _to_pinnable(obj): """Converts obj to a form that can be pinned in object store memory. Currently only numpy arrays are pinned in memory, if you have a strong reference to the array value. """ return (obj, np.zeros(1)) def _from_pinnable(obj): """Retrieve from _to_pinnable format.""" return obj[0] def validate_save_restore(trainable_cls, config=None, num_gpus=0, use_object_store=False): """Helper method to check if your Trainable class will resume correctly. Args: trainable_cls: Trainable class for evaluation. config (dict): Config to pass to Trainable when testing. num_gpus (int): GPU resources to allocate when testing. use_object_store (bool): Whether to save and restore to Ray's object store. Recommended to set this to True if planning to use algorithms that pause training (i.e., PBT, HyperBand). """ assert ray.is_initialized(), "Need Ray to be initialized." remote_cls = ray.remote(num_gpus=num_gpus)(trainable_cls) trainable_1 = remote_cls.remote(config=config) trainable_2 = remote_cls.remote(config=config) from ray.tune.result import TRAINING_ITERATION for _ in range(3): res = ray.get(trainable_1.train.remote()) assert res.get(TRAINING_ITERATION), ( "Validation will not pass because it requires `training_iteration` " "to be returned.") if use_object_store: restore_check = trainable_2.restore_from_object.remote( trainable_1.save_to_object.remote()) ray.get(restore_check) else: restore_check = ray.get( trainable_2.restore.remote( res = ray.get(trainable_2.train.remote()) assert res[TRAINING_ITERATION] == 4 res = ray.get(trainable_2.train.remote()) assert res[TRAINING_ITERATION] == 5 return True if __name__ == "__main__": ray.init() X = pin_in_object_store("hello") print(X) result = get_pinned_object(X) print(result)