Running Tune experiments with AxSearch

In this tutorial we introduce Ax, while running a simple Ray Tune experiment. Tune’s Search Algorithms integrate with Ax and, as a result, allow you to seamlessly scale up a Ax optimization process - without sacrificing performance.

Ax is a platform for optimizing any kind of experiment, including machine learning experiments, A/B tests, and simulations. Ax can optimize discrete configurations (e.g., variants of an A/B test) using multi-armed bandit optimization, and continuous/ordered configurations (e.g. float/int parameters) using Bayesian optimization. Results of A/B tests and simulations with reinforcement learning agents often exhibit high amounts of noise. Ax supports state-of-the-art algorithms which work better than traditional Bayesian optimization in high-noise settings. Ax also supports multi-objective and constrained optimization which are common to real-world problems (e.g. improving load time without increasing data use). Ax belongs to the domain of “derivative-free” and “black-box” optimization.

In this example we minimize a simple objective to briefly demonstrate the usage of AxSearch with Ray Tune via AxSearch. It’s useful to keep in mind that despite the emphasis on machine learning experiments, Ray Tune optimizes any implicit or explicit objective. Here we assume ax-platform==0.2.4 library is installed withe python version >= 3.7. To learn more, please refer to the Ax website.

Click below to see all the imports we need for this example. You can also launch directly into a Binder instance to run this notebook yourself. Just click on the rocket symbol at the top of the navigation.

import numpy as np
import time

import ray
from ray import tune
from import AxSearch

Let’s start by defining a classic benchmark for global optimization. The form here is explicit for demonstration, yet it is typically a black-box. We artificially sleep for a bit (0.02 seconds) to simulate a long-running ML experiment. This setup assumes that we’re running multiple steps of an experiment and try to tune 6-dimensions of the x hyperparameter.

def landscape(x):
    Hartmann 6D function containing 6 local minima.
    It is a classic benchmark for developing global optimization algorithms.
    alpha = np.array([1.0, 1.2, 3.0, 3.2])
    A = np.array(
            [10, 3, 17, 3.5, 1.7, 8],
            [0.05, 10, 17, 0.1, 8, 14],
            [3, 3.5, 1.7, 10, 17, 8],
            [17, 8, 0.05, 10, 0.1, 14],
    P = 10 ** (-4) * np.array(
            [1312, 1696, 5569, 124, 8283, 5886],
            [2329, 4135, 8307, 3736, 1004, 9991],
            [2348, 1451, 3522, 2883, 3047, 6650],
            [4047, 8828, 8732, 5743, 1091, 381],
    y = 0.0
    for j, alpha_j in enumerate(alpha):
        t = 0
        for k in range(6):
            t += A[j, k] * ((x[k] - P[j, k]) ** 2)
        y -= alpha_j * np.exp(-t)
    return y

Next, our objective function takes a Tune config, evaluates the landscape of our experiment in a training loop, and uses to report the landscape back to Tune.

def objective(config):
    for i in range(config["iterations"]):
        x = np.array([config.get("x{}".format(i + 1)) for i in range(6)])
            timesteps_total=i, landscape=landscape(x), l2norm=np.sqrt((x ** 2).sum())

Next we define a search space. The critical assumption is that the optimal hyperparamters live within this space. Yet, if the space is very large, then those hyperparamters may be difficult to find in a short amount of time.

search_space = {
    "x1": tune.uniform(0.0, 1.0),
    "x2": tune.uniform(0.0, 1.0),
    "x3": tune.uniform(0.0, 1.0),
    "x4": tune.uniform(0.0, 1.0),
    "x5": tune.uniform(0.0, 1.0),
    "x6": tune.uniform(0.0, 1.0)

Now we define the search algorithm from AxSearch. If you want to constrain your parameters or even the space of outcomes, that can be easily done by passing the argumentsas below.

algo = AxSearch(
    parameter_constraints=["x1 + x2 <= 2.0"],
    outcome_constraints=["l2norm <= 1.25"],

We also use ConcurrencyLimiter to constrain to 4 concurrent trials.

algo = tune.suggest.ConcurrencyLimiter(algo, max_concurrent=4)

The number of samples is the number of hyperparameter combinations that will be tried out. This Tune run is set to 1000 samples. You can decrease this if it takes too long on your machine, or you can set a time limit easily through stop argument in as we will show here.

num_samples = 100
stop_timesteps = 200

Finally, we run the experiment to find the global minimum of the provided landscape (which contains 5 false minima). The argument to metric, "landscape", is provided via the objective function’s The experiment "min"imizes the “mean_loss” of the landscape by searching within search_space via algo, num_samples times or when "timesteps_total": stop_timesteps. This previous sentence is fully characterizes the search problem we aim to solve. With this in mind, notice how efficient it is to execute

analysis =
    stop={"timesteps_total": stop_timesteps}

And now we have the hyperparameters found to minimize the mean loss.

print("Best hyperparameters found were: ", analysis.best_config)