Train a Pytorch Lightning Image Classifier#

This example introduces how to train a Pytorch Lightning Module using Ray Train TorchTrainer. It demonstrates how to train a basic neural network on the MNIST dataset with distributed data parallelism.

!pip install "torchmetrics>=0.9" "pytorch_lightning>=1.6" 
import os
import numpy as np
import random
import torch
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F
from filelock import FileLock
from torch.utils.data import DataLoader, random_split, Subset
from torchmetrics import Accuracy
from torchvision.datasets import MNIST
from torchvision import transforms

import pytorch_lightning as pl
from pytorch_lightning import trainer
from pytorch_lightning.loggers.csv_logs import CSVLogger

Prepare a dataset and module#

The Pytorch Lightning Trainer takes either torch.utils.data.DataLoader or pl.LightningDataModule as data inputs. You can continue using them without any changes with Ray Train.

class MNISTDataModule(pl.LightningDataModule):
    def __init__(self, batch_size=100):
        super().__init__()
        self.data_dir = os.getcwd()
        self.batch_size = batch_size
        self.transform = transforms.Compose(
            [transforms.ToTensor(), transforms.Normalize((0.1307,), (0.3081,))]
        )

    def setup(self, stage=None):
        with FileLock(f"{self.data_dir}.lock"):
            mnist = MNIST(
                self.data_dir, train=True, download=True, transform=self.transform
            )

            # Split data into train and val sets
            self.mnist_train, self.mnist_val = random_split(mnist, [55000, 5000])

    def train_dataloader(self):
        return DataLoader(self.mnist_train, batch_size=self.batch_size, num_workers=4)

    def val_dataloader(self):
        return DataLoader(self.mnist_val, batch_size=self.batch_size, num_workers=4)

    def test_dataloader(self):
        with FileLock(f"{self.data_dir}.lock"):
            self.mnist_test = MNIST(
                self.data_dir, train=False, download=True, transform=self.transform
            )
        return DataLoader(self.mnist_test, batch_size=self.batch_size, num_workers=4)

Next, define a simple multi-layer perception as the subclass of pl.LightningModule.

class MNISTClassifier(pl.LightningModule):
    def __init__(self, lr=1e-3, feature_dim=128):
        torch.manual_seed(421)
        super(MNISTClassifier, self).__init__()
        self.save_hyperparameters()

        self.linear_relu_stack = nn.Sequential(
            nn.Linear(28 * 28, feature_dim),
            nn.ReLU(),
            nn.Linear(feature_dim, 10),
            nn.ReLU(),
        )
        self.lr = lr
        self.accuracy = Accuracy(task="multiclass", num_classes=10, top_k=1)
        self.eval_loss = []
        self.eval_accuracy = []
        self.test_accuracy = []
        pl.seed_everything(888)

    def forward(self, x):
        x = x.view(-1, 28 * 28)
        x = self.linear_relu_stack(x)
        return x

    def training_step(self, batch, batch_idx):
        x, y = batch
        y_hat = self(x)
        loss = torch.nn.functional.cross_entropy(y_hat, y)
        self.log("train_loss", loss)
        return loss

    def validation_step(self, val_batch, batch_idx):
        loss, acc = self._shared_eval(val_batch)
        self.log("val_accuracy", acc)
        self.eval_loss.append(loss)
        self.eval_accuracy.append(acc)
        return {"val_loss": loss, "val_accuracy": acc}

    def test_step(self, test_batch, batch_idx):
        loss, acc = self._shared_eval(test_batch)
        self.test_accuracy.append(acc)
        self.log("test_accuracy", acc, sync_dist=True, on_epoch=True)
        return {"test_loss": loss, "test_accuracy": acc}

    def _shared_eval(self, batch):
        x, y = batch
        logits = self.forward(x)
        loss = F.nll_loss(logits, y)
        acc = self.accuracy(logits, y)
        return loss, acc

    def on_validation_epoch_end(self):
        avg_loss = torch.stack(self.eval_loss).mean()
        avg_acc = torch.stack(self.eval_accuracy).mean()
        self.log("val_loss", avg_loss, sync_dist=True)
        self.log("val_accuracy", avg_acc, sync_dist=True)
        self.eval_loss.clear()
        self.eval_accuracy.clear()
    
    def configure_optimizers(self):
        optimizer = torch.optim.Adam(self.parameters(), lr=self.lr)
        return optimizer

You don’t need to modify the definition of the PyTorch Lightning model or datamodule.

Define a training function#

This code defines a training function for each worker. Comparing the training fuction with the original PyTorch Lightning code, notice three main differences:

  • Distributed strategy: Use RayDDPStrategy.

  • Cluster environment: Use RayLightningEnvironment.

  • Parallel devices: Always set to devices="auto" to use all available devices configured by TorchTrainer.

See Getting Started with PyTorch Lightning for more information.

For checkpoint reporting, Ray Train provides a minimal RayTrainReportCallback class that reports metrics and checkpoints at the end of each train epoch. For more complex checkpoint logic, implement custom callbacks. See Saving and Loading Checkpoint.

use_gpu = True # Set to False if you want to run without GPUs
num_workers = 4
import pytorch_lightning as pl
from ray.train import RunConfig, ScalingConfig, CheckpointConfig
from ray.train.torch import TorchTrainer
from ray.train.lightning import (
    RayDDPStrategy,
    RayLightningEnvironment,
    RayTrainReportCallback,
    prepare_trainer,
)

def train_func_per_worker():
    model = MNISTClassifier(lr=1e-3, feature_dim=128)
    datamodule = MNISTDataModule(batch_size=128)

    trainer = pl.Trainer(
        devices="auto",
        strategy=RayDDPStrategy(),
        plugins=[RayLightningEnvironment()],
        callbacks=[RayTrainReportCallback()],
        max_epochs=10,
        accelerator="gpu" if use_gpu else "cpu",
        log_every_n_steps=100,
        logger=CSVLogger("logs"),
    )
    
    trainer = prepare_trainer(trainer)
    
    # Train model
    trainer.fit(model, datamodule=datamodule)

    # Evaluation on the test dataset
    trainer.test(model, datamodule=datamodule)

Now put everything together:

scaling_config = ScalingConfig(num_workers=num_workers, use_gpu=use_gpu)

run_config = RunConfig(
    name="ptl-mnist-example",
    storage_path="/tmp/ray_results",
    checkpoint_config=CheckpointConfig(
        num_to_keep=3,
        checkpoint_score_attribute="val_accuracy",
        checkpoint_score_order="max",
    ),
)

trainer = TorchTrainer(
    train_func_per_worker,
    scaling_config=scaling_config,
    run_config=run_config,
)

Now fit your trainer:

result = trainer.fit()

Tune Status

Current time:2023-08-07 23:41:11
Running for: 00:00:39.80
Memory: 24.2/186.6 GiB

System Info

Using FIFO scheduling algorithm.
Logical resource usage: 1.0/48 CPUs, 4.0/4 GPUs

Trial Status

Trial name status loc iter total time (s) train_loss val_accuracy val_loss
TorchTrainer_78346_00000TERMINATED10.0.6.244:120026 10 29.0221 0.0315938 0.970002 -12.3466
(TorchTrainer pid=120026) Starting distributed worker processes: ['120176 (10.0.6.244)', '120177 (10.0.6.244)', '120178 (10.0.6.244)', '120179 (10.0.6.244)']
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) Setting up process group for: env:// [rank=0, world_size=4]
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) [rank: 0] Global seed set to 888
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) GPU available: True (cuda), used: True
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) TPU available: False, using: 0 TPU cores
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) IPU available: False, using: 0 IPUs
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) HPU available: False, using: 0 HPUs
(RayTrainWorker pid=120178) Downloading http://yann.lecun.com/exdb/mnist/train-images-idx3-ubyte.gz
(RayTrainWorker pid=120178) Downloading http://yann.lecun.com/exdb/mnist/train-images-idx3-ubyte.gz to /tmp/ray_results/ptl-mnist-example/TorchTrainer_78346_00000_0_2023-08-07_23-40-31/rank_2/MNIST/raw/train-images-idx3-ubyte.gz
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(RayTrainWorker pid=120179) Extracting /tmp/ray_results/ptl-mnist-example/TorchTrainer_78346_00000_0_2023-08-07_23-40-31/rank_3/MNIST/raw/train-images-idx3-ubyte.gz to /tmp/ray_results/ptl-mnist-example/TorchTrainer_78346_00000_0_2023-08-07_23-40-31/rank_3/MNIST/raw
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) 
(RayTrainWorker pid=120177) Missing logger folder: logs/lightning_logs
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) LOCAL_RANK: 0 - CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES: [0,1,2,3]
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176)   | Name              | Type               | Params
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) ---------------------------------------------------------
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) 0 | linear_relu_stack | Sequential         | 101 K 
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) 1 | accuracy          | MulticlassAccuracy | 0     
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) ---------------------------------------------------------
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) 101 K     Trainable params
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) 0         Non-trainable params
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) 101 K     Total params
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) 0.407     Total estimated model params size (MB)
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(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) /mnt/cluster_storage/pypi/lib/python3.9/site-packages/pytorch_lightning/trainer/connectors/logger_connector/result.py:432: PossibleUserWarning: It is recommended to use `self.log('val_accuracy', ..., sync_dist=True)` when logging on epoch level in distributed setting to accumulate the metric across devices.
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176)   warning_cache.warn(
(RayTrainWorker pid=120179) [rank: 3] Global seed set to 888 [repeated 7x across cluster] (Ray deduplicates logs by default. Set RAY_DEDUP_LOGS=0 to disable log deduplication, or see https://docs.ray.io/en/master/ray-observability/ray-logging.html#log-deduplication for more options.)
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(RayTrainWorker pid=120178) Downloading http://yann.lecun.com/exdb/mnist/t10k-labels-idx1-ubyte.gz to /tmp/ray_results/ptl-mnist-example/TorchTrainer_78346_00000_0_2023-08-07_23-40-31/rank_2/MNIST/raw/t10k-labels-idx1-ubyte.gz [repeated 15x across cluster]
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(RayTrainWorker pid=120178) Extracting /tmp/ray_results/ptl-mnist-example/TorchTrainer_78346_00000_0_2023-08-07_23-40-31/rank_2/MNIST/raw/t10k-labels-idx1-ubyte.gz to /tmp/ray_results/ptl-mnist-example/TorchTrainer_78346_00000_0_2023-08-07_23-40-31/rank_2/MNIST/raw [repeated 15x across cluster]
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(RayTrainWorker pid=120176)  [repeated 9x across cluster]
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(RayTrainWorker pid=120176)  [repeated 7x across cluster]
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(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) `Trainer.fit` stopped: `max_epochs=10` reached.
100%|██████████| 4542/4542 [00:00<00:00, 48474627.91it/s] [repeated 14x across cluster]
100%|██████████| 9912422/9912422 [00:00<00:00, 90032420.31it/s] [repeated 2x across cluster]
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176)  [repeated 5x across cluster]
(RayTrainWorker pid=120178) Missing logger folder: logs/lightning_logs [repeated 2x across cluster]
(RayTrainWorker pid=120179) LOCAL_RANK: 3 - CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES: [0,1,2,3] [repeated 3x across cluster]
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) [rank: 0] Global seed set to 888
Epoch 9: 100%|██████████| 108/108 [00:01<00:00, 66.61it/s, v_num=0]
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) /mnt/cluster_storage/pypi/lib/python3.9/site-packages/pytorch_lightning/trainer/connectors/data_connector.py:225: PossibleUserWarning: Using `DistributedSampler` with the dataloaders. During `trainer.test()`, it is recommended to use `Trainer(devices=1, num_nodes=1)` to ensure each sample/batch gets evaluated exactly once. Otherwise, multi-device settings use `DistributedSampler` that replicates some samples to make sure all devices have same batch size in case of uneven inputs.
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176)   rank_zero_warn(
Testing DataLoader 0:  25%|██▌       | 5/20 [00:00<00:00, 146.57it/s]
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Testing DataLoader 0: 100%|██████████| 20/20 [00:00<00:00, 125.34it/s]
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) ┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┳━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) ┃        Test metric        ┃       DataLoader 0        ┃
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) ┡━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━╇━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┩
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) │       test_accuracy       │    0.9740999937057495     │
(RayTrainWorker pid=120176) └───────────────────────────┴───────────────────────────┘
2023-08-07 23:41:11,072	INFO tune.py:1145 -- Total run time: 39.92 seconds (39.80 seconds for the tuning loop).

Check training results and checkpoints#

result
Result(
  metrics={'train_loss': 0.03159375861287117, 'val_accuracy': 0.9700015783309937, 'val_loss': -12.346583366394043, 'epoch': 9, 'step': 1080},
  path='/tmp/ray_results/ptl-mnist-example/TorchTrainer_78346_00000_0_2023-08-07_23-40-31',
  checkpoint=LegacyTorchCheckpoint(local_path=/tmp/ray_results/ptl-mnist-example/TorchTrainer_78346_00000_0_2023-08-07_23-40-31/checkpoint_000009)
)
print("Validation Accuracy: ", result.metrics["val_accuracy"])
print("Trial Directory: ", result.path)
print(sorted(os.listdir(result.path)))
Validation Accuracy:  0.9700015783309937
Trial Directory:  /tmp/ray_results/ptl-mnist-example/TorchTrainer_78346_00000_0_2023-08-07_23-40-31
['checkpoint_000007', 'checkpoint_000008', 'checkpoint_000009', 'events.out.tfevents.1691476838.ip-10-0-6-244', 'params.json', 'params.pkl', 'progress.csv', 'rank_0', 'rank_0.lock', 'rank_1', 'rank_1.lock', 'rank_2', 'rank_2.lock', 'rank_3', 'rank_3.lock', 'result.json']

Ray Train saved three checkpoints(checkpoint_000007, checkpoint_000008, checkpoint_000009) in the trial directory. The following code retrieves the latest checkpoint from the fit results and loads it back into the model.

If you lost the in-memory result object, you can restore the model from the checkpoint file. The checkpoint path is: /tmp/ray_results/ptl-mnist-example/TorchTrainer_eb925_00000_0_2023-08-07_23-15-06/checkpoint_000009/checkpoint.ckpt.

checkpoint = result.checkpoint

with checkpoint.as_directory() as ckpt_dir:
    best_model = MNISTClassifier.load_from_checkpoint(f"{ckpt_dir}/checkpoint.ckpt")

best_model
Global seed set to 888
MNISTClassifier(
  (linear_relu_stack): Sequential(
    (0): Linear(in_features=784, out_features=128, bias=True)
    (1): ReLU()
    (2): Linear(in_features=128, out_features=10, bias=True)
    (3): ReLU()
  )
  (accuracy): MulticlassAccuracy()
)

See also#