Core API: Deployments

Creating a Deployment

Deployments are the central concept in Ray Serve. They allow you to define and update your business logic or models that will handle incoming requests as well as how this is exposed over HTTP or in Python.

A deployment is defined using @serve.deployment on a Python class (or function for simple use cases). You can specify arguments to be passed to the constructor when you call Deployment.deploy(), shown below.

A deployment consists of a number of replicas, which are individual copies of the function or class that are started in separate Ray Actors (processes).

class MyFirstDeployment:
  # Take the message to return as an argument to the constructor.
  def __init__(self, msg):
      self.msg = msg

  def __call__(self, request):
      return self.msg

  def other_method(self, arg):
      return self.msg

MyFirstDeployment.deploy("Hello world!")

Deployments can be exposed in two ways: over HTTP or in Python via the ServeHandle API. By default, HTTP requests will be forwarded to the __call__ method of the class (or the function) and a Starlette Request object will be the sole argument. You can also define a deployment that wraps a FastAPI app for more flexible handling of HTTP requests. See FastAPI HTTP Deployments for details.

We can also list all available deployments and dynamically get a reference to them:

>> serve.list_deployments()
{'A': Deployment(name=A,version=None,route_prefix=/A)}
{'MyFirstDeployment': Deployment(name=MyFirstDeployment,version=None,route_prefix=/MyFirstDeployment}

# Returns the same object as the original MyFirstDeployment object.
# This can be used to redeploy, get a handle, etc.
deployment = serve.get_deployment("MyFirstDeployment")

Exposing a Deployment

By default, deployments are exposed over HTTP at http://localhost:8000/<deployment_name>. The HTTP path that the deployment is available at can be changed using the route_prefix option. All requests to /{route_prefix} and any subpaths will be routed to the deployment (using a longest-prefix match for overlapping route prefixes).

Here’s an example:

@serve.deployment(name="http_deployment", route_prefix="/api")
class HTTPDeployment:
  def __call__(self, request):
      return "Hello world!"

After creating the endpoint, it is now exposed by the HTTP server and handles requests using the specified class. We can query the model to verify that it’s working.

import requests

We can also query the endpoint using the ServeHandle interface.

# To get a handle from the same script, use the Deployment object directly:
handle = HTTPDeployment.get_handle()

# To get a handle from a different script, reference it by name:
handle = serve.get_deployment("http_deployment").get_handle()


Updating a Deployment

Often you want to be able to update your code or configuration options for a deployment over time. Deployments can be updated simply by updating the code or configuration options and calling deploy() again.

@serve.deployment(name="my_deployment", num_replicas=1)
class SimpleDeployment:

# Creates one initial replica.

# Re-deploys, creating an additional replica.
# This could be the SAME Python script, modified and re-run.
@serve.deployment(name="my_deployment", num_replicas=2)
class SimpleDeployment:


# You can also use Deployment.options() to change options without redefining
# the class. This is useful for programmatically updating deployments.

By default, each call to .deploy() will cause a redeployment, even if the underlying code and options didn’t change. This could be detrimental if you have many deployments in a script and and only want to update one: if you re-run the script, all of the deployments will be redeployed, not just the one you updated. To prevent this, you may provide a version string for the deployment as a keyword argument in the decorator or Deployment.options(). If provided, the replicas will only be updated if the value of version is updated; if the value of version is unchanged, the call to .deploy() will be a no-op.” When a redeployment happens, Serve will perform a rolling update, bringing down at most 20% of the replicas at any given time.

Configuring a Deployment

There are a number of things you’ll likely want to do with your serving application including scaling out or configuring the maximum number of in-flight requests for a deployment. All of these options can be specified either in @serve.deployment or in Deployment.options().

To update the config options for a running deployment, simply redeploy it with the new options set.

Scaling Out

To scale out a deployment to many processes, simply configure the number of replicas.

# Create with a single replica.
def func(*args):


# Scale up to 10 replicas.

# Scale back down to 1 replica.

Resource Management (CPUs, GPUs)

To assign hardware resources per replica, you can pass resource requirements to ray_actor_options. By default, each replica requires one CPU. To learn about options to pass in, take a look at Resources with Actor guide.

For example, to create a deployment where each replica uses a single GPU, you can do the following:

@serve.deployment(ray_actor_options={"num_gpus": 1})
def func(*args):
    return do_something_with_my_gpu()

Fractional Resources

The resources specified in ray_actor_options can also be fractional. This allows you to flexibly share resources between replicas. For example, if you have two models and each doesn’t fully saturate a GPU, you might want to have them share a GPU by allocating 0.5 GPUs each. The same could be done to multiplex over CPUs.

@serve.deployment(name="deployment1", ray_actor_options={"num_gpus": 0.5})
def func(*args):
    return do_something_with_my_gpu()

@serve.deployment(name="deployment2", ray_actor_options={"num_gpus": 0.5})
def func(*args):
    return do_something_with_my_gpu()

Configuring Parallelism with OMP_NUM_THREADS

Deep learning models like PyTorch and Tensorflow often use multithreading when performing inference. The number of CPUs they use is controlled by the OMP_NUM_THREADS environment variable. To avoid contention, Ray sets OMP_NUM_THREADS=1 by default because Ray workers and actors use a single CPU by default. If you do want to enable this parallelism in your Serve deployment, just set OMP_NUM_THREADS to the desired value either when starting Ray or in your function/class definition:

OMP_NUM_THREADS=12 ray start --head
OMP_NUM_THREADS=12 ray start --address=$HEAD_NODE_ADDRESS
class MyDeployment:
    def __init__(self, parallelism):
        os.environ["OMP_NUM_THREADS"] = parallelism
        # Download model weights, initialize model, etc.



Some other libraries may not respect OMP_NUM_THREADS and have their own way to configure parallelism. For example, if you’re using OpenCV, you’ll need to manually set the number of threads using cv2.setNumThreads(num_threads) (set to 0 to disable multi-threading). You can check the configuration using cv2.getNumThreads() and cv2.getNumberOfCPUs().

User Configuration (Experimental)

Suppose you want to update a parameter in your model without needing to restart the replicas in your deployment. You can do this by writing a reconfigure method for the class underlying your deployment. At runtime, you can then pass in your new parameters by setting the user_config option.

The following simple example will make the usage clear:

import requests
import random

from ray import serve


class Threshold:
    def __init__(self):
        # self.model won't be changed by reconfigure.
        self.model = random.Random()  # Imagine this is some heavyweight model.

    def reconfigure(self, config):
        # This will be called when the class is created and when
        # the user_config field of BackendConfig is updated.
        self.threshold = config["threshold"]

    def __call__(self, request):
        return self.model.random() > self.threshold

Threshold.options(user_config={"threshold": 0.01}).deploy()
print(requests.get("").text)  # true, probably

Threshold.options(user_config={"threshold": 0.99}).deploy()
print(requests.get("").text)  # false, probably

The reconfigure method is called when the class is created if user_config is set. In particular, it’s also called when new replicas are created in the future if scale up your deployment later. The reconfigure method is also called each time user_config is updated.

Dependency Management

Ray Serve supports serving deployments with different (possibly conflicting) python dependencies. For example, you can simultaneously serve one deployment that uses legacy Tensorflow 1 and another that uses Tensorflow 2.

Currently this is supported on Mac OS and Linux using conda via Ray’s built-in runtime_env option for actors. As with all other actor options, pass these in via ray_actor_options in your deployment. You must have a conda environment set up for each set of dependencies you want to isolate. If using a multi-node cluster, the desired conda environment must be present on all nodes. See Runtime Environments (Experimental) for details.

Here’s an example script. For it to work, first create a conda environment named ray-tf1 with Ray Serve and Tensorflow 1 installed, and another named ray-tf2 with Ray Serve and Tensorflow 2. The Ray and Python versions must be the same in both environments.

import requests
from ray import serve
import tensorflow as tf


def tf_version(request):
    return ("Tensorflow " + tf.__version__)

    name="tf1", ray_actor_options={
        "runtime_env": {
            "conda": "ray-tf1"
    name="tf2", ray_actor_options={
        "runtime_env": {
            "conda": "ray-tf2"

print(requests.get("").text)  # Tensorflow 1.15.0
print(requests.get("").text)  # Tensorflow 2.3.0


If a conda environment is not specified, your deployment will be started in the same conda environment as the client (the process creating the deployment) by default. (When using Ray Client, your deployment will be started in the conda environment that the Serve controller is running in, which by default is the conda environment the remote Ray cluster was started in.)

The dependencies required in the deployment may be different than the dependencies installed in the driver program (the one running Serve API calls). In this case, you should use a delayed import within the class to avoid importing unavailable packages in the driver. Example:

from ray import serve


class MyDeployment:
    def __call__(self, model_path):
        from my_module import my_model
        self.model = my_model.load(model_path)