An Overview of the Internals

In this document, we trace through in more detail what happens at the system level when certain API calls are made.

Connecting to Ray

There are two ways that a Ray script can be initiated. It can either be run in a standalone fashion or it can be connect to an existing Ray cluster.

Running Ray standalone

Ray can be used standalone by calling ray.init() within a script. When the call to ray.init() happens, all of the relevant processes are started. These include a local scheduler, a global scheduler, an object store and manager, a Redis server, and a number of worker processes.

When the script exits, these processes will be killed.

Note: This approach is limited to a single machine.

Connecting to an existing Ray cluster

To connect to an existing Ray cluster, simply pass the argument address of the Redis server as the redis_address= keyword argument into ray.init. In this case, no new processes will be started when ray.init is called, and similarly the processes will continue running when the script exits. In this case, all processes except workers that correspond to actors are shared between different driver processes.

Defining a remote function

A central component of this system is the centralized control plane. This is implemented using one or more Redis servers. Redis is an in-memory key-value store.

We use the centralized control plane in two ways. First, as persistent store of the system’s control state. Second, as a message bus for communication between processes (using Redis’s publish-subscribe functionality).

Now, consider a remote function definition as below.

def f(x):
    return x + 1

When the remote function is defined as above, the function is immediately pickled, assigned a unique ID, and stored in a Redis server. You can view the remote functions in the centralized control plane as below.

TODO: Fill this in.

Each worker process has a separate thread running in the background that listens for the addition of remote functions to the centralized control state. When a new remote function is added, the thread fetches the pickled remote function, unpickles it, and can then execute that function.

Notes and limitations

  • Because we export remote functions as soon as they are defined, that means that remote functions can’t close over variables that are defined after the remote function is defined. For example, the following code gives an error.

    def f(x):
        return helper(x)
    def helper(x):
        return x + 1

    If you call f.remote(0), it will give an error of the form.

    Traceback (most recent call last):
        File "<ipython-input-3-12a5beeb2306>", line 3, in f
    NameError: name 'helper' is not defined

    On the other hand, if helper is defined before f, then it will work.

Calling a remote function

When a driver or worker invokes a remote function, a number of things happen.

  • First, a task object is created. The task object includes the following.

    • The ID of the function being called.
    • The IDs or values of the arguments to the function. Python primitives like integers or short strings will be pickled and included as part of the task object. Larger or more complex objects will be put into the object store with an internal call to ray.put, and the resulting IDs are included in the task object. Object IDs that are passed directly as arguments are also included in the task object.
    • The ID of the task. This is generated uniquely from the above content.
    • The IDs for the return values of the task. These are generated uniquely from the above content.
  • The task object is then sent to the local scheduler on the same node as the driver or worker.

  • The local scheduler makes a decision to either schedule the task locally or to pass the task on to a global scheduler.

    • If all of the task’s object dependencies are present in the local object store and there are enough CPU and GPU resources available to execute the task, then the local scheduler will assign the task to one of its available workers.

    • If those conditions are not met, the task will be passed on to a global scheduler. This is done by adding the task to the task table, which is part of the centralized control state. The task table can be inspected as follows.

      TODO: Fill this in.

      A global scheduler will be notified of the update and will assign the task to a local scheduler by updating the task’s state in the task table. The local scheduler will be notified and pull the task object.

  • Once a task has been scheduled to a local scheduler, whether by itself or by a global scheduler, the local scheduler queues the task for execution. A task is assigned to a worker when enough resources become available and the object dependencies are available locally, in first-in, first-out order.

  • When the task has been assigned to a worker, the worker executes the task and puts the task’s return values into the object store. The object store will then update the object table, which is part of the centralized control state, to reflect the fact that it contains the newly created objects. The object table can be viewed as follows.

    TODO: Fill this in.

    When the task’s return values are placed into the object store, they are first serialized into a contiguous blob of bytes using the Apache Arrow data layout, which is helpful for efficiently sharing data between processes using shared memory.

Notes and limitations

  • When an object store on a particular node fills up, it will begin evicting objects in a least-recently-used manner. If an object that is needed later is evicted, then the call to ray.get for that object will initiate the reconstruction of the object. The local scheduler will attempt to reconstruct the object by replaying its task lineage.

TODO: Limitations on reconstruction.

Getting an object ID

Several things happen when a driver or worker calls ray.get on an object ID.

  • The driver or worker goes to the object store on the same node and requests the relevant object. Each object store consists of two components, a shared-memory key-value store of immutable objects, and a manager to coordinate the transfer of objects between nodes.
    • If the object is not present in the object store, the manager checks the object table to see which other object stores, if any, have the object. It then requests the object directly from one of those object stores, via its manager. If the object doesn’t exist anywhere, then the centralized control state will notify the requesting manager when the object is created. If the object doesn’t exist anywhere because it has been evicted from all object stores, the worker will also request reconstruction of the object from the local scheduler. These checks repeat periodically until the object is available in the local object store, whether through reconstruction or through object transfer.
  • Once the object is available in the local object store, the driver or worker will map the relevant region of memory into its own address space (to avoid copying the object), and will deserialize the bytes into a Python object. Note that any numpy arrays that are part of the object will not be copied.