Source code for

import copy
from typing import Dict, List, Optional, Union

from ray.tune.result import DEFAULT_METRIC
from ray.tune.sample import Categorical, Float, Integer, LogUniform, \
    Quantized, Uniform
from ray.tune.suggest.suggestion import UNRESOLVED_SEARCH_SPACE, \
from ray.tune.suggest.variant_generator import parse_spec_vars
from ray.tune.utils.util import flatten_dict, unflatten_dict

    import ax
    from ax.service.ax_client import AxClient
except ImportError:
    ax = AxClient = None

# This exception only exists in newer Ax releases for python 3.7
    from ax.exceptions.core import DataRequiredError
    from ax.exceptions.generation_strategy import \
except ImportError:
    MaxParallelismReachedException = DataRequiredError = Exception

import logging

from ray.tune.suggest import Searcher

logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)

[docs]class AxSearch(Searcher): """Uses `Ax <>`_ to optimize hyperparameters. Ax is a platform for understanding, managing, deploying, and automating adaptive experiments. Ax provides an easy to use interface with BoTorch, a flexible, modern library for Bayesian optimization in PyTorch. More information can be found in To use this search algorithm, you must install Ax and sqlalchemy: .. code-block:: bash $ pip install ax-platform sqlalchemy Parameters: space (list[dict]): Parameters in the experiment search space. Required elements in the dictionaries are: "name" (name of this parameter, string), "type" (type of the parameter: "range", "fixed", or "choice", string), "bounds" for range parameters (list of two values, lower bound first), "values" for choice parameters (list of values), and "value" for fixed parameters (single value). metric (str): Name of the metric used as objective in this experiment. This metric must be present in `raw_data` argument to `log_data`. This metric must also be present in the dict reported/returned by the Trainable. If None but a mode was passed, the `ray.tune.result.DEFAULT_METRIC` will be used per default. mode (str): One of {min, max}. Determines whether objective is minimizing or maximizing the metric attribute. Defaults to "max". points_to_evaluate (list): Initial parameter suggestions to be run first. This is for when you already have some good parameters you want to run first to help the algorithm make better suggestions for future parameters. Needs to be a list of dicts containing the configurations. parameter_constraints (list[str]): Parameter constraints, such as "x3 >= x4" or "x3 + x4 >= 2". outcome_constraints (list[str]): Outcome constraints of form "metric_name >= bound", like "m1 <= 3." ax_client (AxClient): Optional AxClient instance. If this is set, do not pass any values to these parameters: `space`, `metric`, `parameter_constraints`, `outcome_constraints`. use_early_stopped_trials: Deprecated. max_concurrent (int): Deprecated. Tune automatically converts search spaces to Ax's format: .. code-block:: python from ray import tune from import AxSearch config = { "x1": tune.uniform(0.0, 1.0), "x2": tune.uniform(0.0, 1.0) } def easy_objective(config): for i in range(100): intermediate_result = config["x1"] + config["x2"] * i ax_search = AxSearch(metric="score") config=config, easy_objective, search_alg=ax_search) If you would like to pass the search space manually, the code would look like this: .. code-block:: python from ray import tune from import AxSearch parameters = [ {"name": "x1", "type": "range", "bounds": [0.0, 1.0]}, {"name": "x2", "type": "range", "bounds": [0.0, 1.0]}, ] def easy_objective(config): for i in range(100): intermediate_result = config["x1"] + config["x2"] * i ax_search = AxSearch(space=parameters, metric="score"), search_alg=ax_search) """ def __init__(self, space: Optional[Union[Dict, List[Dict]]] = None, metric: Optional[str] = None, mode: Optional[str] = None, points_to_evaluate: Optional[List[Dict]] = None, parameter_constraints: Optional[List] = None, outcome_constraints: Optional[List] = None, ax_client: Optional[AxClient] = None, use_early_stopped_trials: Optional[bool] = None, max_concurrent: Optional[int] = None): assert ax is not None, """Ax must be installed! You can install AxSearch with the command: `pip install ax-platform sqlalchemy`.""" if mode: assert mode in ["min", "max"], "`mode` must be 'min' or 'max'." super(AxSearch, self).__init__( metric=metric, mode=mode, max_concurrent=max_concurrent, use_early_stopped_trials=use_early_stopped_trials) self._ax = ax_client if isinstance(space, dict) and space: resolved_vars, domain_vars, grid_vars = parse_spec_vars(space) if domain_vars or grid_vars: logger.warning( UNRESOLVED_SEARCH_SPACE.format( par="space", cls=type(self))) space = self.convert_search_space(space) self._space = space self._parameter_constraints = parameter_constraints self._outcome_constraints = outcome_constraints self._points_to_evaluate = copy.deepcopy(points_to_evaluate) self.max_concurrent = max_concurrent self._parameters = [] self._live_trial_mapping = {} if self._ax or self._space: self._setup_experiment() def _setup_experiment(self): if self._metric is None and self._mode: # If only a mode was passed, use anonymous metric self._metric = DEFAULT_METRIC if not self._ax: self._ax = AxClient() try: exp = self._ax.experiment has_experiment = True except ValueError: has_experiment = False if not has_experiment: if not self._space: raise ValueError( "You have to create an Ax experiment by calling " "`AxClient.create_experiment()`, or you should pass an " "Ax search space as the `space` parameter to `AxSearch`, " "or pass a `config` dict to ``.") if self._mode not in ["min", "max"]: raise ValueError( "Please specify the `mode` argument when initializing " "the `AxSearch` object or pass it to ``.") self._ax.create_experiment( parameters=self._space, objective_name=self._metric, parameter_constraints=self._parameter_constraints, outcome_constraints=self._outcome_constraints, minimize=self._mode != "max") else: if any([ self._space, self._parameter_constraints, self._outcome_constraints, self._mode, self._metric ]): raise ValueError( "If you create the Ax experiment yourself, do not pass " "values for these parameters to `AxSearch`: {}.".format([ "space", "parameter_constraints", "outcome_constraints", "mode", "metric", ])) exp = self._ax.experiment # Update mode and metric from experiment if it has been passed self._mode = "min" \ if exp.optimization_config.objective.minimize else "max" self._metric = self._parameters = list(exp.parameters) if self._ax._enforce_sequential_optimization: logger.warning("Detected sequential enforcement. Be sure to use " "a ConcurrencyLimiter.") def set_search_properties(self, metric: Optional[str], mode: Optional[str], config: Dict): if self._ax: return False space = self.convert_search_space(config) self._space = space if metric: self._metric = metric if mode: self._mode = mode self._setup_experiment() return True def suggest(self, trial_id: str) -> Optional[Dict]: if not self._ax: raise RuntimeError( UNDEFINED_SEARCH_SPACE.format( cls=self.__class__.__name__, space="space")) if not self._metric or not self._mode: raise RuntimeError( UNDEFINED_METRIC_MODE.format( cls=self.__class__.__name__, metric=self._metric, mode=self._mode)) if self.max_concurrent: if len(self._live_trial_mapping) >= self.max_concurrent: return None if self._points_to_evaluate: config = self._points_to_evaluate.pop(0) parameters, trial_index = self._ax.attach_trial(config) else: try: parameters, trial_index = self._ax.get_next_trial() except (MaxParallelismReachedException, DataRequiredError): return None self._live_trial_mapping[trial_id] = trial_index return unflatten_dict(parameters) def on_trial_complete(self, trial_id, result=None, error=False): """Notification for the completion of trial. Data of form key value dictionary of metric names and values. """ if result: self._process_result(trial_id, result) self._live_trial_mapping.pop(trial_id) def _process_result(self, trial_id, result): ax_trial_index = self._live_trial_mapping[trial_id] metric_dict = {self._metric: (result[self._metric], None)} outcome_names = [ for oc in self._ax.experiment.optimization_config.outcome_constraints ] metric_dict.update({on: (result[on], None) for on in outcome_names}) self._ax.complete_trial( trial_index=ax_trial_index, raw_data=metric_dict) @staticmethod def convert_search_space(spec: Dict): resolved_vars, domain_vars, grid_vars = parse_spec_vars(spec) if grid_vars: raise ValueError( "Grid search parameters cannot be automatically converted " "to an Ax search space.") # Flatten and resolve again after checking for grid search. spec = flatten_dict(spec, prevent_delimiter=True) resolved_vars, domain_vars, grid_vars = parse_spec_vars(spec) def resolve_value(par, domain): sampler = domain.get_sampler() if isinstance(sampler, Quantized): logger.warning("AxSearch does not support quantization. " "Dropped quantization.") sampler = sampler.sampler if isinstance(domain, Float): if isinstance(sampler, LogUniform): return { "name": par, "type": "range", "bounds": [domain.lower, domain.upper], "value_type": "float", "log_scale": True } elif isinstance(sampler, Uniform): return { "name": par, "type": "range", "bounds": [domain.lower, domain.upper], "value_type": "float", "log_scale": False } elif isinstance(domain, Integer): if isinstance(sampler, LogUniform): return { "name": par, "type": "range", "bounds": [domain.lower, domain.upper], "value_type": "int", "log_scale": True } elif isinstance(sampler, Uniform): return { "name": par, "type": "range", "bounds": [domain.lower, domain.upper], "value_type": "int", "log_scale": False } elif isinstance(domain, Categorical): if isinstance(sampler, Uniform): return { "name": par, "type": "choice", "values": domain.categories } raise ValueError("AxSearch does not support parameters of type " "`{}` with samplers of type `{}`".format( type(domain).__name__, type(domain.sampler).__name__)) # Fixed vars fixed_values = [{ "name": "/".join(path), "type": "fixed", "value": val } for path, val in resolved_vars] # Parameter name is e.g. "a/b/c" for nested dicts resolved_values = [ resolve_value("/".join(path), domain) for path, domain in domain_vars ] return fixed_values + resolved_values